PPD definition & prevalence
However, expert opinion and guideline definitions of PPD differ between sources.1,3
*According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, Text Revision, a major depressive episode is a primary component of major depressive disorder (MDD) but differs from MDD in that MDD cannot be better explained by a psychotic disorder and there has never been a manic or hypomanic episode.1
Explore a quick reference guide that uncovers the reality for patients with PPD.
PPD is a type of major depressive episode and is not the same as the “baby blues.”1,4
The “baby blues” describes mild mood changes and feelings of worry, unhappiness, and exhaustion in the first 2 weeks after having a baby.4
If these feelings last longer than 2 weeks, it may be PPD.4
Burden of disease | Impact on mothers
History of depression is associated with a >20x higher risk for PPD compared to those without a history of depression.19
You’ve seen the reality for patients with PPD, now uncover the burden for patients with MDD.
The science behind depression is expanding. See what other neurotransmitters may play a role in depression.
References: 1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (Fifth Edition, Text Revised). 2022. 2. Batt MM, Duffy KA, Novick AM, Metcalf CA, Epperson CN. Is postpartum depression different from depression occurring outside of the perinatal period? A review of the evidence. Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ). 2020;18(2):106-119. 3. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 757: Screening for perinatal depression. Obstet Gynecol. 2018;132(6):e208-212. 4. National Institute of Mental Health. Perinatal Depression. Accessed January 3, 2023. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/sites/default/files/documents/health/publications/perinatal-depression/20-MH-8116-PerinatalDepression.pdf. 5. Wang Z, Liu J, Shuai H, et al. Mapping global prevalence of depression among postpartum women. Transl Psychiatry. 2021;11(1):5431. 6. Cox EQ, Sowa NA, Meltzer-Brody SE, et al. The perinatal depression treatment cascade: baby steps toward improving outcomes. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77(9):1189-1200. 7. Bauman BL, Ko JY, Cox S, et al. Vital signs: postpartum depressive symptoms and provider discussions about perinatal depression - United States, 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(19):575-581. 8. Iturralde E, Hsiao CA, Nkemere L, et al. Engagement in perinatal depression treatment: a qualitative study of barriers across and within racial/ethnic groups. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2021;21(1):512. 9. Henshaw EJ, Durkin KM, Snell RJ. First-time parents' shared representation of postpartum depressive symptoms: a qualitative analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2016;160:102-110. 10. Thurgood S, Avery DM, Williamson L. Postpartum depression (PPD). Am J Clin Med. 2009;6(2):17-22. 11. Trost S, Beauregard J, Chandra G, et al. Pregnancy-related deaths: data from maternal mortality review committees in 36 US states, 2017-2019. Maternal Mortality Review Information App; 2022. 12. Gressier F, Guillard V, Cazas O, Falissard B, Glangeaud-Freudenthal NM, Sutter-Dallay AL. Risk factors for suicide attempt in pregnancy and the post-partum period in women with serious mental illnesses. J Psychiatr Res. 2017;84:284-291. 13. Posmontier B. Functional status outcomes in mothers with and without postpartum depression. J Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2008;53(4): 310-318. 14. Logsdon MC, Wisner K, Hanusa BH, et al. Role functioning and symptom remission in women with postpartum depression after antidepressant treatment. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2003;17(6):276-283. 15. Pearson RM, Evans J, Kounali D, et al. Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at age 18 years. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(12):1312-1319. 16. Netsi E, Pearson RM, Murray L, et al. Association of persistent and severe postnatal depression with child outcomes. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75(3):247-253. 17. Rogers A, Obst S, Teague SJ, et al. Association Between Maternal Perinatal Depression and Anxiety and Child and Adolescent Development: A Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174(11):1082-1092. 18. Ghaedrahmati M, Kazemi A, Kheirabadi G, et al. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review. J Educ Health Promot. 2017;6:60. 19. Silverman ME, Reichenberg A, Savitz DA, et al. The risk factors for postpartum depression. Depress Anxiety. 2017;34(2):178-187. 20. Putnick DL, Sundaram R, Bell EM, et al. Trajectories of Maternal Postpartum Depressive Symptoms. Pediatrics. 2020;146(5). 21. Mughal S, Azhar Y, Siddiqui W. Postpartum depression. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; October 7, 2022. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519070/.